Basic Marketing

BASIC MARKETING (for students of higher education systems remotely) Internal Circulation HANOI - 2007 MARKETING BASIC Editor: TS. SHANGHAI MARKETING BASIC THAI NGUYEN Code: Responsible 417MAR240 manuscript TRAINING CENTER POSTS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Full c westernization, regional economic integration and international trend is inevitable for all nations, including Vietnam. Party and Government have actively advocated for the development and integration of industry requirements to build the integration roadmap. In such conditions, competition is becoming fierce with the scale, intensity and extent of widening. This forces businesses to change the thinking of business, customer oriented. Hence, marketing becomes an indispensable subject for students of business administration in general and of the Academy of Telecommunications Technology in particular. Watch it the old document "Basic Marketing" compiled by the author aims to provide basic marketing knowledge to the students of distance education systems sector business administration, College of telecommunications technology. In addition, business executives in the network can also refer to equip themselves with a powerful tool to support business decisions in an environment of intense competition. Eu document was compiled based on the textbook "Basic Marketing" by the author, is composed of 11 chapters follow a logical sequence of courses. In addition to basic marketing principles, the document analyzes the characteristics of practical business environment in Vietnam to help readers apply the basic knowledge of marketing in practice. The author selected several examples, the business situation in the market of Vietnam in general, and telecommunications markets in particular to illustrate the theoretical arguments are presented. End of each chapter, the author provides questions to review and discussion, helps students understand well all over. Arab author has won a lot of work for the compilation of this curriculum. However, because this is the first document was compiled for the system of higher education from a distance, make sure that the document should not avoid these limitations.
We hope to receive the comments of his readers near and far.
Author TS. Thai Nguyen Thuong 

 After you finish reading this chapter h, students should understand the following issues:
 • Nature of Marketing
 • The role and functions of Marketing
Functional relationship of marketing with other functions within the enterprise.
 • The way of thinking to develop business
• The basic problem in "Marketing Management" 

1.1.1.       The birth of a life Marketing Marketing in the production of goods of capitalism to solve the contradiction between supply and demand. Comes from the U.S., then spread gradually to other countries. Vietnam has received and subject to be taught in schools Marketing in the late 80's early 1990 when the economy is shifting to market mechanisms. Currently, marketing is a compulsory subject in the sector programs in Business Administration. Marketing is the process of t otal to business practices in the competitive environment and gradually generalized and elevated to scientific reasoning. Due to the development of commodity production, from manual labor to place the labor mechanization, mass production of large amounts of goods to provide more leads to excess demand of the market. On the other hand, the relationship between producers and consumers appear increasingly remote from the intermediate distribution when the scale of production grows. Therefore, the producers have less opportunity to understand the customer's wishes. This is the root cause leading to the production of goods not sold out for failing to meet the needs of customers. This situation forced the manufacturers to explore different approaches to consumer goods. Whenever the old method does not resolve the issues raised by the new method appeared instead. Therefore, the content, methods and thinking of business had changed to adapt to the new business environment. Business T U thinking "what he is available for sale" in the demand conditions are smaller, businesses must shift to thinking "Sell what the customer needs" when supply exceeded demand and increased competition. That is the thinking of business marketing. To achieve this thinking "Sell what customers need," the producers have a clear understanding of their customers through market research. Therefore, businesses must conduct marketing activities in all stages of the production process, from research to capture market demand for both after-sales.
Detected Manufacturing needs products for sale after-sales service is the first marketing application in enterprises producing consumer goods, and then transferred to enterprises producing industrial goods. And in recent decades, marketing has penetrated into the service sector and non-commercial. From only restricted to business in the early stages and then Marketing also get into most other fields such as politics, education, socio-cultural, sports ... Today, we can see many international universities implement a variety of media programs in Vietnam to attract students to study Vietnam. Even then, the "birth plan" would require the support of marketing if you want to convince the public implementation. One must understand the different groups we need to understand their wishes. On that basis, the experts outlined the content of media programs that convince the public believe.
          1.1.2. Basic concepts of Marketing you ni
 1) Marketing là gì?
a) Marketing Marketing is broadly defined mass or dynamic range is very wide, so should a broad definition. Marketing is the nature of the transaction, the exchange aims to satisfy needs and wants of man. Therefore, marketing activities appear anywhere as a social unit (individual or organization) trying to exchange something of value to a social unit. From there, we can make marketing broadly defined as follows: Marketing is the activity designed to create and promote the exchange of any order that satisfies the needs and wishes of children people. Subjects person who made the subjects received Marketing Marketing Product (Entity) (Products) (Customer) B Yi whenever they want to convince someone to do something, then that is the subject that Marketing activities conducted. That might be convincing people the government made birth plans, a political party to persuade voters to vote for their candidate in the presidential seat, a company persuade customers to buy products, or convince yourself to colleagues, friends made her a new idea ... So Marketing activities occur in all areas of social life, for businesses, nonprofit organizations as well as agencies of the Party and State. Marketing can only be brewed as an individual, a business, a political party, a non-profit organizations, and government. Marketing objects are known as products can be:
1. A commodity: Toyota Innova, Vietnam Tien shirt ...
 2. A service: Mega VNN, courier DHL, PR majors ...
3. One idea: HIV prevention, birth control plan
 4. A man: presidential candidates, congressional candidate ...
 5. A place: Tuan Chau resort, Sapa ...
 6. And an entire country: Vietnam Hiden Charme ... Subjects receiving marketing programs can be the buyers, users, people affected, who decided ...
 b) Marketing Marketing in a narrow sense as defined above refers to its role in an economic system - society at large. However, the purpose of this curriculum is the study of marketing problems for a particular organization in that system. This organization can be a business, or a non-profit organizations. Thus, we need a definition of Marketing narrower sense. Marketing is a comprehensive system of organized activities designed to plan, pricing, promotion and distribution of products, services and ideas to meet the needs of your target market and achieve objectives of the organization (according to American Marketing Association - AMA). In particular, if the implementation is marketing businesses, we can refer to a typical definition of the following Marketing: Marketing is the process of enterprise management in order to discover customer needs and meet it needs an effective way than competitors (Chartered Institute of Marketing). Marketing by definition has the following important implications:
 • Marketing is a new business philosophy, the philosophy for clients. Also, to ensure marketing activities, the organization needs a new management functions - marketing management functions.
 • Functions of enterprise marketing management, organization to ensure all activities of the organization to customer-oriented.
For this, the organization must correctly identify the needs and wants of customers and satisfying those needs effectively.
 • Business profits through satisfying customers' needs.
 • Marketing to meet the objectives of the business in the long term. Can also be said, Marketing is the process of satisfying customer demand, made by hi ện:
 • To coordinate the different functions within the enterprise
 • To focus on the "target customers"
• Through the use of "The objectives, strategies and marketing plans" made by "the 4P marketing mix." H on the 4P Marketing what? That's four marketing tool at hand that a business can use to influence the target market to achieve the set objectives. 4P marketing mix includes four elements: S Product publications means that the company used to satisfy customer needs. Products can be tangible goods, intangible services, can be a place ... To distinguish between customers, products must have a label and must be packed. PRICE Price c A is the amount customers spend to get the product. Customers can buy many discount. Patrons may be preferential prices. Convenient payment method, flexibility also allows customers to buy more. Distribution is to distribute fluid to move operations products to targeted customers. If the business well organized distribution channels will increase consumption, and cost savings, and thus increase competitiveness. Promotion promotion, marketing or communications, is a mixture consists of components is advertising, public relations, advocacy, promotion and direct sales.Promotion have a role to provide information, encourage and persuade the public trust in companies and in consumer products and products of the company. If the company researched the market's demand, then production of products consistent with market needs and determine appropriate prices for the product value, held good distribution system and transmission through effective marketing, you definitely will easily consume their products. When Australian companies can now market research techniques to product design, the product itself has the ability to "sell it yourself" is very good. Therefore, an expert on marketing, Peter Drukker following conclusion: "The purpose of Marketing is to recognize and understand the customer well enough to provide goods or services for sale will meet the needs of customers that it has sold itself. "
 2) The need, desire We have seen modern marketing towards satisfying the needs of the market, because demand is the driving force urges people to act in general and in particular purchase. So what are the needs? Want to know we need to classify your needs:
a) Demand for natural bid as C natural, or human needs (human cần) is the need to be formed when people feel something lacking. Economists have classified Maslow needs of human nature into 5 different levels (see Figure 1.1.) Demand c bid is natural for human capital. Marketing just found out the needs of human nature rather than create it.
b) Desire Desire is a natural demand for particular types, specific. Each individual has their own way to satisfy his desire, depending on the cognitive, personality, their culture. For example: Hunger is a natural demand. This demand is met by the different ways for different customers. Who wants to eat, who they want to eat pho, who shall eat bread, men who ate the same as men ... rice, who is popular to eat dust, who is wanted in luxurious restaurants. Is the same information needs, people will use mobile phones or the Motorola brand Noikia, who will use messaging phone card combination. Understanding the natural needs of customers is not enough. Marketing people must also understand their desire to create unique products competitive to win business. Everyone knows that people need food to survive, but the catering business to create countless different kinds of different food, the service of different ways to meet the wishes of different customers. Exchange is also a demand of human nature. The Business Post and Telecommunications (PT) has created a variety of different services to meet the desired indirect exchange of different customers. Itself needs to be respected Needs Social Needs (love, communication ...) safety needs (protection, peace ...), demand for natural (food, drink, breathe, only survival of the species ...)
 Figure 1.1. B evil scale Maslow's needs meet the expectations of different customer groups will help businesses increase their competitiveness, and bring to society a variety of products and services, along with Arab tho meet a demand of human nature. However, correctly identify the customer wants is not easy work. Therefore, enterprises must also inspire desire is latent in every human being. Everyone wants to be respected, confident. But nobody wants to know is confident they must use the toothpaste "Close up", or to chew gum to "exercise the face." With this product, the manufacturer of toothpaste and chewing gum helped satisfy customer needs are respected, confident.
c) be able to demand payment as C bid is likely to demand payment and the natural desire to match the financial capabilities of the customer. If there are no obstacles to buying behavior, as may be available for sale, sell at the wrong time, right place ... the need for liquidity will translate into purchase decisions.Demand for liquidity has also been called the economic needs of the market (Demand). To say may, if business is good customer service will remove many obstacles, barriers to buying behavior and help customers move from the demand for liquidity into purchasing decisions. Need c bid payment is likely that business needs first and foremost concern, because this is a business opportunity need to capture and respond promptly. Business opportunities for the individual who is not. In the context of increasingly market liberalization, the demand for liquidity can not be satisfied will stimulate the competitors enter the market. To say may, on Vietnam's market is now very much in demand payment but can not be satisfied.This is a great opportunity for entrepreneurs. For Vietnam, the market liquidity is a very important issue.Therefore, affordable products to consumers. For example, although many Chinese goods is not high quality, but still be purchased for customers in Vietnam. The reason is that prices of basic goods that fit the pockets of large customers in Vietnam, especially in rural areas.
 d) The different levels of demand and marketing tasks
 - As market demand for audio bridge that most customers do not like the product. Marketing's task is to find the reason why customers do not like the product. On that basis, should be redesigned four components Marketing - mix to attract customers.
 - No bridge is the case when the target customers are not interested in lukewarm product offerings. In this case, the task of marketing is through promotion programs to make customers see that the product will meet any of them.
- Prayer is the potential demand is not met. On the market there is always the demand is not met.Marketing's task is to detect and assess the size of the market and create products that satisfy the demand.
 - Demand reduction is the demand is decreasing. Marketing's task is to determine the causes of decline and propose policies and strategies for expanding the market by finding new targets, or change the contents of the four marketing mix strategy. - Bridges do not have time to change It's time (time of day, day of week, week in January, months of the year ...). Unstable demand made at the organizational ability to provide redundant, as the work overload. Marketing is the task of trying to spread out the demand through a flexible pricing strategy, promotion strategy and policies to encourage others.
 - Full Bridge This is the case when the organization was satisfied with quantity demanded. Marketing's task is to maintain existing levels of demand in order to avoid situations decreased by increased competition and changing tastes, the tastes of customers. Enterprises need to regularly measure customer satisfaction for timely adjustment of marketing mix strategies.
 - Demand exceeds supply in this case, when the organization is not able to fully meet market demand.Marketing's task is to use pricing strategies, promotion to reduce demand temporarily or permanently from the market with low profit, or non-emergency needs. Current electricity demand of its kind in Vietnam.State-style pricing power to restrict progressive multiple users. At the same time strengthening the state's propaganda, they use the electricity savings.
 - Bridge Children's unfair for children of Marketing is to reduce demand in the promotion strategy, pricing and supply restrictions (tobacco, flies, beer, games, drugs ...). Through eight levels of review and requirements of the marketing tasks above, we see a marketing management role with the requirements of different policies.
 3) The value, cost and satisfaction
Consumers do not buy a product. They buy the benefits that brings products to consumers. That is the value of a consumer product. And as a basis for consumer choice to buy products. Can be defined as follows: The value of a consumer product is the consumer's assessment of the overall capabilities of the product can meet their needs. Costs for a product is all the losses that consumers have to spend to get the value of its consumption. Satisfaction of consumers is the level of their state of feeling when comparing the results of consumer products with what they expected before buying.
 4) market, product
 a) Marketing market perspective, the market consists of people or organizations have the need or desire a specific, ready and able to buy goods and services purchased to meet the expected demand for it. By this definition, we need to consider human and organizational needs, wants, and their ability to purchase their buying behavior. Necessary to distinguish the concept of market marketing standpoint, the concept of traditional markets, where trading occurs, and the concept of market economics standpoint, the system consists of buyers and selling, and supply-demand relationship between them.
b) People use products goods and services to meet your needs. Using the concept of product marketing (product) generally refer to goods or services. Any product that can offer something to satisfy their needs, desires. Products can be goods, services, ideas, places, people ... It should be noted employs consumers not to purchase a product, but buying a benefit, utility, satisfaction that a product bearing again.
 5) exchange
The exchange is to give others something to take back a product that you want. Marketing occurs when people decide to satisfy wants through exchange. Communication is the most basic concepts of Marketing. Exchange is one of four ways that people can get the product.
The first is self-produced products.
 The first two are taken by others.
The third way is to beg.
And the fourth is exchanged (bought as a form of exchange). To exchange is done, should have the following conditions:
 • There are two sides (two social units) participating in the exchange.
• Both parties are voluntary and there is a need for satisfaction.
 • Each side has something valuable to exchange and the parties believe that they benefit from talking.
 • Both parties must inform each other about the needs, the exchange value. Communication is the act has been a desired product from others by transfer to something else that is worth. Communication is a fundamental concept to define marketing.
 1.1.3. The role and functions of marketing in business
 1) Role of Marketing in the enterprise
 Marketing acts as a connector c bid intermediate between the activities of enterprises and markets, ensuring the operation of the business user market, taking market as business objectives. In other words, marketing can create tasks for enterprise customers. Marketing used in the work plan will help set up business plans for enterprises to implement the guideline plan must result from the market. In the context of market competition fierce, only businesses that know the market direction to be able to survive.
2) The function of marketing in business
 Marketing needs to answer the following business:
 • Who are the target customers of the business? What features do they have? Needs, their desires like?(Understanding the customer)
 • The business environment of enterprises have a positive impact, negative as to how the business?(Understanding the business environment).
• The competitors are competing for business? How their strengths and weaknesses compared to the business? (Understand competitors)
• Business Marketing using mixed strategies to influence what customers? (Product, price, distribution and promotion - marketing mix).
 This is a proactive weapon in the hands of the business to "attack" on the target market. URL as such, can speak to business success, enterprises must understand yourself, understand the enemy, understand customers, to understand clearly natural natural time, local benefits (environmental conditions). Since then the company can build marketing strategies towards the market. A. This is the separate functions of "Marketing Management" that other functions within the company fails. Therefore, it is relatively independent nature with other functions. However, to carry out their operations, marketing departments need to coordinate the support of other functions
 3) The relationship of marketing with other functions in the m column with multiple business functions.They are:
 • Functions of financial management accounting
 • The function of human resources management
 • production management function
 • Marketing Management Functions
• Features research and development ...
 Figure 1.2 scale t A functional relationship between marketing and other functions within the company, which functions as a bridge between marketing and corporate market through other functions.
Figure 1.2. Functional relationship between marketing and other functions
 V whoa relationship between these functions like? Marketing can stand alone to create business customers are not? The answer is to accomplish his goal to know the marketing coordination with other functions to create synergy. The reason is simple to implement its strategy, the marketing managers must have resources such as finance, human resources, technology, production equipment ..., which is known to coordinate with other functions in the enterprise to create synergy toward the market. Thus, both marketing functions independent, moderate and coordinate with other functions within the enterprise to achieve the set objectives. Marketing function to be associated with the organic unity of functions. To say marketing may just be a new business thinking - thinking about customer orientation, and both an important function in the company - market functions connected with the company, ensuring that the company current thinking on customer orientation. In conditions of market economy can talk marketing is the key to success for businesses.
 1.2. Management MARKETING
 1.2.1. What is marketing management?
As well as other activities in the enterprise, to achieve the set objectives, marketing activities should be managed. According Ph. Kotler: Marketing is eating Qu process analysis, planning, implementing and supervising the implementation of measures to establish, strengthen and maintain beneficial exchanges with selected buyers to achieve goals of the business. URL as such, Marketing management is directly related to the following issues:
 • Understanding the changes (increase or decrease) the market demand
 • Prompt open, stimulating and regulating the market's needs
• Suggest measures to influence the market demand so that businesses can achieve these goals.
 • Test the implementation of strategies, plans and measures of Marketing
1.2.2. Perspectives Marketing Management Marketing URL formation and development in a process of constantly improving the awareness of corporate governance. So far, it has been the world's fifth point summation Marketing Management. Can be summarized as follows in that perspective.
 1) towards the production point
Views towards production that will interest many customers affordable products are widely sold. Therefore, enterprises need to expand production scale and expanding distribution. According to this view, the decisive factor for business success is low prices and more goods. Enterprises producing the goods that they have advantages. In fact, firms will pursue this point of success if the quantity of supply over demand is low and businesses have the advantage of scale (ie production as much as lowering the price), while desire to lower market prices. However, the production conditions of mechanization led to a series of supply over demand, then this point is difficult to ensure business success. Trung Qu goods snails invade Vietnam's market and other markets in the world thanks to low price range and quality range. This strategy has been successful due to the vast rural market of Vietnam's many demands are not met, and liquidity is not high. M column in the production-oriented companies, senior managers as Board Chairman, CEO has technical expertise in the fields of manufacturing companies, while the sales department is a room performing small ads only.
 2) improve product views
 Ni me the finished product that consumers preferred the products with the highest quality, which features the best use. Since then, businesses need to work hard constantly improve our products. T Of course, the competitive environment, businesses must constantly improve their products, but that's not all. Needs of the ever-changing market. If businesses forget that, just drunk improve their products have, they will sometimes fail because market demand has changed. Company car tires MIT-fiber-cylinder because of France once famous durable good quality tires, has pursued a view to complementing products. But then they have failed when the market trend is changing fast cars. If the postal service is only aimed at improving the traditional to be unavoidable due to the failure of alternative telecommunications services are fiercely competitive.
 3) point towards sales
Views toward selling to that customer or hesitation, reluctance to purchase goods. Therefore, enterprises must strive to promote the new sales success. According to this new business production and promote consumption concerns. To make this point to invest in business organizations of modern shops and focused recruitment training sales staff have excellent persuasive skills, attention to advertising tools, promotions ...
Historically, this also brought success for many businesses. And to date sales techniques, sales promotion is effective. However, it is not the deciding factor. Today, many people confuse marketing and sales. However, if the product does not meet the needs of customers, the sales effort will be in vain. You will be in vain to convince a young man today bought the long dress, turban, though very cheap! For sales-oriented companies, the sales managers to become the most important person in the company, the sales function is the most important functions within the company. They are bringing success to the company.According to this view, good salesman can sell anything goods, including goods that customers do not like!
 4) The views of customer orientation
Views towards the customer to confirm that successful businesses must accurately identify the needs and wants of target markets, and can satisfy the expected demand so that it is more effective for competitors.Time of emergence of this perspective is at the end of 1960. This is the business philosophy of customer-oriented marketing. Generalized comparison between the ideological orientation of sales and customer orientation are described in Figure 1.3. To distinguish clearly customer-oriented perspective we outlined the basic characteristics of this opinion as follows:
• Aimed at specific target markets
• Understand the needs and expectations of target customers
 • Use a combination of different tools (Marketing Mix)
• Increase profits on the basis of satisfying customers' needs
To can tell, is marketing a new business thinking, customer-oriented thinking, customer-target exists. To do this thinking should have an organization responsible for marketing activities in enterprises. Therefore, the emergence of a new function is the function of Marketing Management as the other functions: HR Management, Financial Management - accounting, production management ... In a customer-oriented companies, Chairman of the Board and CEO have a basic knowledge of marketing rather than technological knowledge. Oriented sales starting point Factory Method
• Produce first and then try to sell
• Sales orientation • Plan short-term efforts
 • Focus needs of the seller tools
 • Stimulate purchase multiple efforts using commercial objectives
• Increase profits by increasing sales
Orientation Marketing Target Market
• Understanding demand and new production and sales
 • Ability to benefit
 • Long-term Plan
• pay attention to the needs of buyers
• Marketing Strategy synthetic mixture
 • Increase profits by meeting market demand
 Figure 1.3. Comparison between two points
 Oh th term in the economic planning focused in Vietnam, marketing has no place. The State sector is the absolute position in terms of size and position. But the state-owned enterprises are not motivated to apply marketing, because they do not need customers. But the economic components of the cooperative and private sectors are small and scattered. Therefore, they only focus on sales only. T yes when Vietnam moved to the market mechanism began to emerge, the demand for understanding, learning and practical application of marketing in business. In the late eighties and early nineties, marketing began to be taught at universities in Vietnam. D i is not a course soon, one way that a company can move immediately to marketing orientation. To assess the marketing orientation of a company, we can use the method of scoring by the different standards (see Annex last chapter.)
 4) The ethics of social marketing
A. This is the point most recent appearance. This view requires the harmonious combination between the three different customer benefits: customer benefits, business benefits and social benefits. Products of the business community to help improve the quality of life, not merely material life. On th Australian economy, many companies satisfy the first two benefits, but has forgotten social benefits such as pollution, environmental damage, depletion of natural resources, causing disease to humans ... Results society is being condemned, ostracized. Tobacco firms increasingly condemned by society, and the Government has incubated many countries prohibit all forms of tobacco advertising. Coca-Cola has also been organized to protect consumers accused of chemicals harmful to human health. The packaging of goods were also persistent condemnation.
 1.2.3. Marketing Administrative process
 1) The process of providing value to customers
 M targets of any Australian business that is providing value to customers to satisfy their needs, and profits for businesses. There are two views provide value to customers. According to traditional views, to provide value to customers, businesses must first have a product. Then, business valuation, information for customers, and product consumption. This attitude can only succeed in tight market conditions. According to modern views, the course of providing value to customers including three steps:
 Step 1: Select a value. In this step, the need to conduct market segmentation, selection of appropriate target markets and product positioning (ie make the difference of the product compared with competing products).
 Step 2: Create value. In this step, companies must develop products and services together, pricing, distribution network organization.
 Step 3: Notification and deliver value. In this step, the implementation of enterprise communication activities such as advertising, promotions and sales.
 2) Marketing Management process
Marketing process includes five steps: • Analysis of marketing opportunities
• Segment and target market selection
• Strategic Marketing Design
 • Planning marketing programs
• Implementation and test marketing efforts.
a)       Analysis of market opportunities
The process of analyzing market opportunities, including a two-step detection of new markets and assessing market.
 - Identify new market
 Tr Convention entering new markets, a company must study the market carefully to discover the business potential in line with their capabilities. If the company is located in the market then, they also seek new business opportunities to create a safe position, because the market was constantly changing. It can be said, the market always has the business opportunity. The problem is for businesses with timely detected or not, and that opportunity is in line with the capacity of the enterprise or not?
 - Assess ability to meet market opportunities for companies
On the field I can always have different business opportunities. The problem is these opportunities that fit with the company or not, that is, companies can market participants with greater advantages compared to other competitors or not ... In other words, companies must view objectives and consider the potential of the company.
b)       market segments. Select target markets
 After analyzing Assembly C in the market, companies must choose your target market, that is, companies can target consumers most attractive to the most convenient service to the company: Australian service ph all customers in all geographical areas, or choose a group or several groups of customers? Before selecting target markets, companies need to segment markets, ie divided into groups of customers different needs, personality or behavior. Target market may include one or a few market segments. Then the company must locate products on the market target is selected, that is guaranteed for the product launch is expected to have any different characteristics to products competitive and consistent with the desired customer's objectives. Doing so will increase the company competitive for the product.
c) Develop marketing strategies companies are required to per-activity-oriented, with clear objectives. For this, companies must set goals and how to achieve that goal. Tools to implement a strategic plan and marketing plan. M per-company may have a few areas of activity. Each activity sector has different items.Vietnam Post and Telecommunications Corporation has three business areas: postal services, telecommunications services and telecommunications industries. In each field that has the products and services differently. However, not all areas of the company's activities are equally good future. There are areas in decline, losing money, is rapidly growing field. The objective of the strategic plan are clearly defined and the company is found to develop a strong manufacturing sector and narrow the weak manufacturing sector. Range planning Marketing Director is responsible for drafting plans for individual production sectors, each item of the company after the company has adopted the strategic decisions for each of its manufacturing industry. Marketing plans include long-term (over one year) and annual plans.
K ế long-term analysis of key factors affecting the market in the planning stage, set out the objectives for that period, measures the basic strategy to dominate the market for the product expected , expected profits, revenues and projected costs. This plan is reviewed and adjusted to suit the changes in the environment.
K ế year plan that details of the plan is expected out in the long-term plan for the first year implementation.In presenting the plan in the current marketing situation, outlines the risks and opportunities, the goals set for each product, Marking plan for the plan year. Marketing plans are the basis for coordinating all types of activities: production, marketing and finance.
 d) Develop programs mixture Marketing (Marketing Mix) Marketing Mix How sick g everything that a company can manipulate to influence the target market to generate the desired response. After deciding on product positioning, the company must conduct marketing mix planning to mobilize all of the company's ability to achieve goals. This is a fundamental difference compared to the modern marketing viewpoint-oriented sales. Marketing mix in the program, companies must clearly identify the characteristics of the product as the name, packaging, properties, together with services, prices of products including retail, wholesale, price incentives, discounts, deferred sales ... product delivery methods to customers; and finally marketing communications program to inform target customers about new products, convince them, remind them, causing their sympathy for the company.
e) Implementation of marketing activities
 To carry out marketing activities the company should have the corresponding apparatus. It is a system of marketing the organization. For small companies, the organization may Marketing only a few people undertake all marketing activities such as marketing research, consumer organizations, media and marketing organization, providing customer service ... For big companies, they must build a marketing organization structure is regulated. Marketing apparatus can be organized by product, by customer, by geography, and organization of mixed type combining two or three criteria (by geography, by product, by customer).
Review Questions and discussion
1) Presentation of thought "only sell things that customers need." For example businesses comply with this thinking (*).
 2) Give an example of the intrusion of marketing into business fields such as non-political, educational and community service.
 3) Presentation of the role and function of marketing in the business (*).
 4) Find a situation proves that businesses fail when not done thinking only sell things that customers need.
 5) Presentation of views towards the customer.? (*)
 6) Analysis of the view that marketing is just a new business thinking and as a function of the company.
 7) Presentation of the difference between sales orientation and marketing orientation. (*)
 8) Presentation of relationship marketing function with other functions within the enterprise (*)
 9) The moral views of social marketing (*)
10) Distinguish between needs and wants of customers. (*)
11) The Vietnam enterprises under the subsidy can be used to Marketing or not? Why?
 12) You have a house in a location with many universities. You found the opening of the rice. You will perform the steps in the marketing like? Your business plan is nothing different in the two cases offer greater demand, and also smaller bridge?
 13) Why is the small private business to attend courses on marketing and still succeed? If you are a basically marketing study, you have hope that he will become the business world? Why?
 14) You try to look for business opportunities in your area. You try to pick a business opportunity in line with your abilities?
15) Analysis of the Marketing Management (*)
Note: Questions marked with (*) at the end of the questions have answers abstracts were presented at the end of the document.
After you finish reading this chapter h, students need to know:
 • Concept Marketing Research and Marketing Information System
• Contents of 4 subsystems in information systems Marketing
• The period, the contents of Marketing Research
• Marketing Research Methods
 • The different sources of information for marketing research.

2.1.1. Concept
 H ệ Marketing Information System is a collection of people, equipment and procedures used to collect, classify, analyze, evaluate and distribute the necessary information accurately and timely for decision of Marketing. By this definition, people and equipment essential role in the marketing information system. A marketing information system ideally be able to:
 • Generate regular reports and special studies as needed.
• Combining the old and new data to provide updated information and identifying market trends.
• Data analysis (using mathematical models)
• Helping managers to answer questions like "If ... then ...?". For example "If the company reduced the price 10% sales increase how much?"
 Because personal computers are used more widely and easily with low cost and ability to network computers in different locations, Marketing information systems provide greater potential for Marketing Management. Column M Marketing information systems based on computer networking applications can quickly provide the necessary marketing information at low cost. The value and success of the Marketing Information System depends on three factors:
• The nature and quality of available data
 • The accuracy and realism of the models and techniques of data analysis.
 • The relationship between the operator information system and marketing managers use information.
2.1.2. The need for a Marketing Information System
 Or mass marketing in the business is increasingly complex and diverse, requiring full and timely information needed. The Marketing Management activities should be based on market information, the environment inside and outside the enterprise. Almost every step in the process of marketing management such as analysis, planning, implementing and testing the effectiveness of marketing activities, the marketing managers need information. They need information on demand, customer tastes, activities of competitors, the elements of a business school ... this information should be stored, regularly updated, is divided shared between managers, are easily accessible. This is also reason to need to organize a marketing information system. Can summarize the factors that led to the need for marketing information system for enterprises as follows:
 • The senior management of enterprises increasingly have less time to make marketing decisions.Environmental reasons are forcing enterprises to change the existing product and make more new products faster. Therefore, they need to get information faster, more.
• Marketing activities increasingly more complex, the scope and area of widening an increasingly competitive with the globalization trend. Therefore, marketing information on more diverse subjects and using increasingly larger areas.
• expectations of increasing customers, businesses increasingly have to pay much attention to the customer. Therefore, enterprises need more and more marketing research.
 • trend of convergence between computing and telecommunications make it easy for the establishment of large databases are networked. An information system designed and well organized source can provide sufficient information marketing, low-cost convenience for Marketing executives make decisions. Capacity storage and information access system that allows storage and handling of large amounts of information.On that basis, managers can check the results frequently consumed products, the situation of the market volatility ...
2.1.3. Model of marketing information system map on Figure 2.1 depicts the structure of the model of information systems Marketing Enterprises, which includes four subsystems in information systems Marketing.
 They are:
• internal reporting system (revenue, cost, production, materials, cash ...).
• The system collects information outside Marketing (outside the enterprise information, including enterprise information collected or purchased outside).
• Marketing Research System (research organization to collect the necessary information.)
 • Information Systems Marketing analysis (using statistical methods to accounting and computer analysis of information obtained).
 Information systems Marketing executives Marketing
• Analysis
 • Planning
• Implementation
 • Test
 E. Information needs assessment HT store information inside
Distribution information analysis supporting HT HT Decision Marketing Marketing information
 Marketing outside the school environment
- Macro Environment
 - Each school system H ệ Micro Marketing Research
Decisions and marketing communications

1) internal reporting system
 B Yi public companies also have internal reporting systems. For state enterprises such as Vietnam Post and Telecommunications Corporation, according to statistics ordinances, implementation of internal reporting system is required. Reports from subordinates to their superiors, the targets reflect the consumption of products and services daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually (as a value and in kind); expenditure fees, investment, debts, supplies ... Children Eu companies have built internal reporting system on the basis of complete computerization, ensuring the ability to store a large volume of information, and convenient search for and retrieve information.
 2) The system collects marketing information system outside the H ệ often collect information on the outside is a combination of sources and methods to collect information on daily events from the business environment of the company . The usual external sources are abundant. That is the information that marketing professionals can get in newspapers, magazines, on TV, on Web pages. At the Vietnam Post and Telecommunications Group, the specialist daily tracking information on customers' praise of the press.Employees regularly exposed to the customer can obtain more useful information from customers through direct communication with them. These agents are also important sources of marketing information.Marketing specialists in charge of information could serve the customer to buy at the counter of the competition, or attend shareholder meetings, exhibitions, talks to end their employees ... Finally, companies can buy from the usual news provider of information outside of a professional everyday. For this information, the problem is important issue to collect information regularly. For example, businesses may require periodic reporting mechanism for employees who have regular contacts with customers, distributors ... With large businesses have staff who have regular contacts with customers this is an important source of information and low cost.
3) Marketing research system can be said that marketing research is key to the success of the business. Any business that pursues a customer-oriented research is also needed for marketing slogan to sell things that customers need. Marketing research to determine a systematic way the material needed by the sex


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